What is Steel？
Steel is a carbon iron alloy with carbon content of 0.0218-2.11%. We usually refer to it as iron and steel. In order to ensure its toughness and plasticity, the carbon content is generally not more than 1.7. The main elements of steel in addition to iron, carbon, there are silicon, manganese, sulfur, phosphorus and other alloy elements.
Their functional features are presented together:
Carbon (Carbon): exists in all steel, is the most important hardening element. To help increase the strength of steel, we usually want tool grade steel with more than 0.6% carbon, also known as high carbon steel.
Chromium (Chromium): increase wear resistance, hardness, most importantly corrosion resistance, with more than 13% considered stainless steel. In spite of this, if not properly maintained, all steel will rust.
Manganese (Manganese): an important austenitic stabilizing element, which helps to form texture structure, increase firmness and strength, and wear resistance. During heat treatment and rolling process, the internal deoxidation of steel appears in most knife shear steels.
Molybdenum (Molybdenum): carbonizing agent to prevent steel from becoming brittle and to maintain the strength of steel at high temperatures. In many steels, air hardened steel always contains 1% or more molybdenum so that they can harden in the air.
Nickel (Nickle): retention strength, corrosion resistance, and toughness.
Silicon (Silicon): helps to enhance strength. Like manganese, silicon is used in steel production to maintain the strength of steel.
Tungsten (Tungsten): enhanced wear resistance. Tungsten and an appropriate proportion of chromium or manganese are mixed to make high-speed steel.
Vanadium (Vanadium): enhanced wear resistance and ductility.
Phosphorus (Phosphorus): is a harmful element, reduces the plasticity and toughness of steel, appears cold brittleness, can make steel strength increase significantly, at the same time improve atmospheric corrosion stability, the content should be limited to 0.05% below.
Sulfur (Sulfur): usually sulfur is a harmful element, which makes steel hot brittle and limited to 0.05% or less. However, the sulfur content of easy cutting steel is high, which can reach 0.08%~0.40%.
Nowadays, steel has become one of the most used materials in the world with its low price and reliable performance. It is an indispensable component in the construction industry, manufacturing industry and people's daily life, and is the main raw material of metal pipeline system.
According to the chemical composition of steel can be divided into carbon steel and alloy steel.
In addition, cast iron is also an important raw material for metal pipes, especially ductile iron.
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